24 October, 2016:
The benefits of the Mediterranean diet in regard to cardiovascular health and metabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women are well recognized [1, 2]. Seafood is considered as one of the major components of the Mediterranean diet. So could one make a clear link between a regular consumption of fish and cardiovascular benefits? Most of us would say 'yes, certainly', but a recent publication challenges this common perception. The newest data come from a prospective cohort study of US women participating in the Women's Health Initiative from 1993 to 2014 . A total of 39,876 women who were aged ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline provided dietary data on food frequency questionnaires. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between fish and energy-adjusted omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and the risk of major cardiovascular disease, defined as a composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. The final analytic sample included 38,392 women (mean age 55 years). During 713,559 person-years of follow-up, 1941 cases of incident major cardiovascular disease were confirmed. Tuna and dark fish (mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish) intake was not associated with the risk of incident major cardiovascular disease (p-trend > 0.05). Neither α-linolenic acid nor marine omega-3 fatty acid intake was associated with major cardiovascular disease or with individual cardiovascular outcomes (all p-trend > 0.05). There was no effect modification by age, body mass index, or baseline history of hypertension.