As the world-wide population ages, it is projected that the number of persons living with osteoporosis will also increase. Osteoporosis is usually asymptomatic until a fracture occurs, and preventing osteoporotic fractures is the main goal of an osteoporosis screening strategy. Osteoporosis justifies a screening program because it is an important public health problem and effective treatments are available.
The objectives of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are to provide diagnostic criteria, prognostic information on the probability of future fractures, and a baseline status to follow the evolution of the disease. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used bone densitometric technique for this purpose.
All the major societies recommend the evaluation of risk factors for osteoporosis in women after the age of 50 years. There is also agreement that DXA-based screening is indicated after the age of 65 in all women not tested previously, and for all men 70 years and older. In the younger population, women less than 65 and men less than 70 years old, BMD assessment is only recommended when risk factors for low bone mass are present. These recommendations are included in the guidelines and consensus for women by the International Menopause Society and the North American Menopause Society and for both genders in the guidelines from the National Osteoporosis Foundation , the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, the International Osteoporosis Foundation, the Endocrine Society  and the American Academy of Family Physicians. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists also recommends evaluating all women 50 years and older for osteoporosis risk and considering DXA testing based on clinical fracture risk profile.
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recently published recommendations on screening for osteoporosis, to prevent bone fractures in adults, based on the revision of evidence on screening and treatment of osteoporotic fractures in men and women . The screening population was postmenopausal women and older men with no known previous osteoporotic fracture and no known co-morbid conditions or medication use associated with secondary osteoporosis.